One of the most important utilities is the water supply. One of the most important utilities is the water supply. While the entire system is working properly, we can not even think about it. Basic knowledge in this area is useful for everyone. And it does not depend on whether you want to implement the water supply project yourself or invite a professional.
In the simplest version, the waterworks works due to the force of pressure and the force of attraction.
Speaking of a water pipe, we mean that we have a water tap and when we turn it away from it, water flows from it. And, notice, modern water supply must meet some requirements. So, the water should flow smoothly, it should not make noise in the pipes, it should not contain air and foreign inclusions that can break our modern ceramic valves and other devices.
The water must be in the pipes under a certain pressure. The minimum of this pressure is 1.5 atmospheres. This is a minimum, which allows you to work with modern washing machines and dishwashers. In addition, the water should be enough. That is, we are worried about not only the pressure, but also the flow of water. Figuratively speaking, we need that we can wash, while the second half washes the dishes or vice versa. The most pleasant thing is that modern pumping stations allow us to design these characteristics of the water pipe before it is created and eventually create a water pipe with the characteristics that we need.
Since ancient times water towers have been used to create a water pipe. Such a tower stores water at a certain height and this water flows from it through the pipes already under pressure, using the principle of communicating vessels. We are intuitively clear that the more pressure the greater the difference in height between the surface of the water and the place where we measure this pressure.
So, for example, if the water tower has a height of 15 meters (this is the height of a five-story building) and filled completely, then on the surface of the water we get a pressure of 1.5 atmospheres, and on the second floor of our house only 1 atmosphere and so on. It is not difficult to calculate that we need to build a water tower with a height of 40 meters, which is approximately equal in height to a house of 13 floors, to obtain pressure in 4 atmospheres, namely, such pressure we need, for example, for watering the garden with the use of modern impulse sprinklers. Note that to achieve pressure, it does not really matter which tank is at the top of our pipe at 40 meters. There may be a tank the size of one, or two, or five tons, and the pressure in all cases will be exactly 4 atmospheres.
Due to the increased mechanical strength and resistance to high temperatures in domestic water supply, the most widely used are metal water pipes – from galvanized steel, stainless steel, cast iron, high-strength iron with spherical graphite (VCCH) and copper.
Pipes made of synthetic materials, for example, of polyethylene of various densities, are also used.
In the twentieth century, in the developed countries, pipelines from copper were widely used in the water supply of buildings because of a combination of factors that ensure an extended period of accident-free operation.
In our time, polymeric pipelines are becoming increasingly popular due to their simplicity in installation and cheapness of products coming from developing countries. Due to the variety of types of polymeric pipelines themselves, connection methods, their performance characteristics continue to be the subject of controversy, and the prices are extremely different. A lot of experience has already been accumulated in the use of polymeric water pipes. So, after a series of mass accidents in North America, the use of polybutene pipelines has been completely stopped.
If you live in a simple house, like most people, then your house is connected to a central water supply. Water goes through the pipe through the counter from the main water pipe to your house. One good tip: if you need find pipes inside the wall, then use best stud finder for this purpose.
In front of the meter there is a main tap which, if closed, the water supply will stop throughout the house. This crane is very important, because If there is a leak in the house, then by shutting off this tap you can avoid flooding everything in your house. Be sure to find out where this tap is located and try to close the water for the test. Sometimes the cranes rust or sour and then they are very difficult to unscrew. So keep it under control.
Further, if you have a water filtration system for your home, then the water pipe is broken down into the indoor and outdoor.
In turn, the inner water pipe is divided into hot and cold water. Pipes for hot water pipes go directly to the water heater. Then two water pipes – cold and hot are found in the mixers, which are installed in the kitchen and bathroom.
Before the toilet bowl, all mixers, washing machine and dishwasher, the heating tank must be installed valves. This is necessary to simply replace any element of the water pipe (washing machine, toilet, etc.) without turning off the water throughout the house.
Then the water enters the drainage system. Drainage begins with a s-curved pipe. Such a construction is necessary in order to have a water stopper. This plug retains all unpleasant odors (gases) in the drainage system. Since all domestic drainage systems do not have pressure in the pipes (the pressure is the same as in the surrounding atmosphere), they are laid at an incline so that the water flows by gravity. Also in some places of the drainage system there may be openings closed with a lid. They are necessary for cleaning pipes if they are clogged.